Professor

Department of Mechanical Engineering

Clemson University

Clemson, SC 29634

Tel: 864 656-7225

Fax: 864 656-4435

Email: ctong at clemson. edu

**Education**

Ph.D., Cornell University, 1995

ME, Beijing Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 1986

BE, Beijing Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 1983

**Professional Experience**

Clemson University, 2009-present, Professor of Mechanical Engineering

Clemson University, 2005-2009, Associate Professor of Mechanical Engineering

Clemson University, 1999-2005, Assistant Professor of Mechanical Engineering

Pennsylvania State University, 1995-1999, Research Associate

**Awards**

National Science Foundation Faculty Early Career Development (CAREER)
Award (2001).

Clemson University Board of Trustee Faculty Excellence Award (2002)

**Research Interests**

Turbulent mixing, turbulent combustion, atmospheric boundary layer, subgrid-scale

modeling for large-eddy simulation, fine-scale turbulence structure.

Professor Tong's research on turbulent combustion focuses on subgrid-scale mixing and

turbulence-chemistry interaction, especially on the SGS physics related to filtered density function

methods for large-eddy simulation of turbulent combustion. He made the first measurement of the filtered

density function, discovering two limiting SGS mixing regimes, which have important implications for

developing mixing models capable of predicting all combustion regimes.

His research on atmospheric turbulence currently focuses on the recent multi-point Monin-Obukhov

similarity theory, which he developed in 2015. The fundamental theory for understanding

and modeling the surface layer of the atmospheric boundary layer has been been the Monin-Obukhov

similarity theory (MOST) since its inception in 1954. However, it has been known since the late 1950s that

MOST has some major shortcomings, rendering its surface layer similarity incomplete. A resolution of the issues

has eluded the boundary layer community for more than 50 years. Dr. Tong recently developed a generalized

theory, the multi-point Monin-Obukhov similarity theory, overcoming the limitations of MOST and making

the surface-layer similarity complete. The multi-point Monin-Obukhov similarity theory provides a new

theoretical framework for understanding and modeling the surface layer, and is expected to have important

impacts on the applications in the boundary layer. He is now leading
a major collaborative NSF project (M^2HATS)

to further develop the theory and to conduct extensive field measurements to test and calibrate the theory.

ClemsonNews on the NSF project

**Selected Publications**

48. Li, W., Yuan, M., Carter, C. D., and Tong, C. 2021 Investigation of three-scalar subgrid-scale

mixing in turbulent coaxial jets. *J. Fluid Mech. ***924,** A40.

47. Yuan, M., Zhang, H. and Tong, C. 2021 Investigation of scalar-scalar-gradient filtered

joint density function for large eddysimulation of turbulent combustion
*Phys. Fluids ***133,** 035121.

46. Ding, M. and Tong, C. 2021 Multi-point Monin-Obukhov similarity of turbulence cospectra in the

convective atmospheric boundary layer *Boundary Layer Meteorol. ***178,** 185--199.

45. Tong, C. and Ding, M. 2020 Velocity-defect laws, log law and logarithmic friction law in the

convective atmospheric boundary layer *J. Fluid Mech. ***883,** A36.

44. Tong, C. and Ding, M. 2019 Multi-point Monin-Obukhov similarity in the convective

atmospheric surface layer using matched asymptotic expansions. *J. Fluid Mech. ***864,** 640-669.

43. Tong, C. and Ding, M.2018 Monin-Obukhov similarity and local-free-convection scaling

in the atmospheric boundary layer using matched asymptotic expansions.

*J. Atmos. Sci. ***75,*** * 3691-3701.

42. Ding, M., Nguyen, K. X., Liu, S., Otte, M. J. and Tong, C. 2018 Investigation of the pressure-strain-rate

correlation and pressure fuctuations in convective and near neutral atmospheric
surface layers.
*J. Fluid Mech. ***854,** 88-120.

41. Li, W., Yuan, M., Carter, C. D., and Tong, C. 2017 Experimental investigation of the effects

of mean shear and scalar initial scale length scale on three scalar mixing in turbulent coaxial jets.
*J. Fluid Mech. ***817,** 183-216.

40. Oncley, S. P., Hartogensis, O, and Tong, C. 2016 Whirlwinds and Hairpins in the Atmospheric

Surface Layer. *J. Atmos. Sci. ***73,*** * 4927-4943.

39. Tong, C. and Nguyen, K. X. 2015 Multipoint Monin-Obukhov similarity and its application

to turbulence spectra in the convective atmospheric surface layer.

*J. Atmos. Sci. ***72,*** * 4337-4348.

38. Liu, S. and Tong, C. 2015 Investigaton of subgrid-scale mixing of reactive scalar

perturbations from flamelet in turbulent partially premixed flames. *Combust. Flame ***162,*** * 4149-4157.

37. Nguyen, K. X. and Tong, C. 2015 Investigation of subgrid-scale physics in the convective

atmospheric surface layer using the budgets of the conditional mean subgrid-scale stress and

temperature flux. *J. Fluid Mech. ***772,*** * 295-329.

36. Nguyen, K. X., Horst, T. W., Oncley, S. P., and Tong, C. 2013 Measurements of the
budgets of the

subgrid-scale stress and temperature flux in a convective atmospheric surface layer.
*J. Fluid Mech. ***729,*** * 388-422.

35. Liu, S. amd Tong, C., 2013 Subgrid-scale mixing of mixture fraction, temperature, and species mass

fractions in turbulent partially premixed flames. *Proc. Combust. Inst.
***34,*** * 1231-1239. Supplimental Materials

34. Cai, J., Dinger, M. J., Li, W., Carter, C. D. Ryan, M. D., and Tong, C. 2011 Experimental

study of three scalar mixing in a turbulent coaxial jet. *J. Fluid Mech.
***685,** 495-531.

33. Cai, J., Barlow, R. S., Karpetis, A. N., and Tong, C., 2011 Conditionally filtered diffusion

of mixture fraction and temperature in turbulent partially premixed flames.
*Proc. Combust. Inst.*** 33,**

1505-1533.

32. Zhao, Y. Tong, C. and Ma, L. 2011 Kinetics of I2 and HI photodissociation with implications

in flame diagnostics. *Appl. Phys. B.*** 104,** 689-698.

31. Chen, Q., Liu, S., and Tong, C. 2010 Investigation of subgrid-scale fluxes and their production

rates in a convective atmospheric boundary layer using measurement data.
*J. Fluid Mech.,*** 660,**

282-315.

30. Cai, J., Barlow, R. S., Karpetis, A. N., and Tong, C. 2010 Noise correction and length scale

estimation for scalar dissipation rate measurements in turbulent partially premixed flames.
*Flow Turbul. Combust.*** 85**, 309-332.

29. Zhao, Y. Tong, C. and Ma, L. 2009 Demonstration of a new laser diagnostic based on

photodissociation spectroscopy for imaging mixture fraction in a non-premixed flame.
*Appl. Spectrosc.***64**, 377-383.

28. Chen, Q., Otte, M.J., Sullivan, P.P., and Tong, C. 2009 A posteriori
subgrid-scale model tests

based on the conditional means of subgrid-scale stress and its production
rate.
*J. Fluid Mech. ***626,*** *149-181.

27. Cai, J. and Tong C. 2009 A conditional sampling-based method for noise
and resolution corrections

for scalar dissipation rate measurements. *Phys. Fluids ***21**,
065104.

26. Cai, J, Wang, D., Tong, C., Barlow, R.S., and Karpetis, A.N. 2009 Investigation
of subgrid-scale

mixing of mixture fraction and temperature in turbulent partially premixed
flames. *Proc.*
*Combust. Inst. ***32,*** *1533-1541.

25. Zhao, Y. Tong, C. and Ma, L. 2009 Assessment of a novel flow visualization
technique using

photodissociation spectroscopy. *Appl. Spectrosc. ***63,**199-206.

24. Wang, D., Tong, C., Barlow, R.S., and Karpetis, A.N. 2007 Experimental study of scalar filtered

mass density function in turbulent partially premixed
flames. *Proc. Combust. Inst. ***31,*** *1517-1525.

23. Chen, Q. and Tong, C. 2006 Invesitgation of subgrid-scale stress and
it sproduction rate in a

convective atmospheric boundary layer. *J. Fluid Mech. ***547**,
65-104.

22. Chen, Q., Wang, D., Zhang, H. and Tong, C. 2005 Investigation of scale
dependences of subgrid-scale

scalar flux and its production rate. *J. Turbulence ***6,
**36.

21. Wang, D. and Tong, C. 2005 Experimental study of velocity-scalar filtered
joint density function

for LES of turbulent combustion. *Proc. Combust. Inst.
***30**,
567-574.

20. Wang, D., Tong, C. and Pope, S. B. 2004 Experimental investigation of
velocity filtered joint density

function for large eddy simulation. *Phys. Fluids ***16**,
3599-3613.

19. Zhang, H. and Tong, C. 2004 On conditional scalar increment and joint
velocity-scalar increment

statistics, *New J. Phys*. **6** (Focus issue on turbulence),
38.

18. Grujicic, M., Zhao, C. L., Tong, C., DeRosset, W. S., and Helfritch,
D. 2003 Analysis of the impact

velocity of power particles in the cold-gas dynamic-spray process.
*Mater.
Sci. Eng*. **A368**, 222-230.

17. Grujicic, M., Tong, C., DeRosset, W.S., and Helfritch, D. 2003 Flow
analysis and nozzle-shpae

optimization for the cold-gas dynamic-spray process. *Proc.
Instn. Engrs. ***217**,
1603.

16. Chen, Q., Zhang, H., Wang, D., and Tong, C. 2003 Subgrid-scale stress
and its production rate:

Conditions for resolvable-scale velocity probability density function.
*J.
Turbulence * **4**, 29.

15. Tong, C. 2003 Galilean invariance of velocity probability density function
transport equation.

*Phys. Fluids* **15,** 2073-2076.

14. Zhang, H. and Tong, C. 2003 On conditional velocity-increment statistics.
*Phys.
Fluids* **15**, 1676-1686.

13. Rajagopalan, A. G. and Tong, C. 2003 Experimental investigation of scalar-scalar-dissipation
filtered

joint density function and its transport equation. *Phys. Fluids
***15**,
227-244.

12. Wang, D. and Tong, C. 2002 Conditionally filtered scalar dissipation,
scalar diffusion, and velocity

in a turbulent jet. *Phys. Fluids* **14**, 2170-2185.

11. Tong, C. 2001 Measurements of conserved scalar filtered density function
in a turbulent jet.
*Phys. Fluids* **13**, 2923-2937.

10. Tong, C., Wyngaard, J.C., and Brasseur, J.G. 1999 Experimental study
of subgrid-scale stress in the

atmospheric surface layer. *J. Atmos. Sci*., **56**, 2277-2292.

9. Miller, D.O., Tong, C., and Wyngaard, J.C. 1999 The effects of probe-induced
flow distortion on

velocity covariances: Field observation. *Boundary Layer Meteorol.
***91**,
483-493.

8. Tong, C., Wyngaard, J.C., Khanna, S. and Brasseur, J.G. 1998 Resolvable-and
subgrid-scale

measurement in the atmospheric surface layer: technique and issues.
*J. Atmos. Sci.* **55**, 3135-3147.

7. Tong, C. 1997 Spectra of heat-flux and stress fluctuations in the atmospheric
surface layer.
*J. Atmos. Sci. ***54**, 1277-1284.

6. Tong, C. 1996 Taylor's hypothesis and two-point coherence measurements.
*Boundary-Layer*
* Meteorol.* **81**, 399-410.

5. Tong, C. and Wyngaard, J.C. 1996 Two-point coherence in the atmospheric
surface layer.

*Boundary-Layer Meteorol.* **81**, 105-121.

4. Tong, C. and Warhaft, Z. 1995 Scalar dispersion and mixing in a jet.
*J.
Fluid Mech.* **292**, 1-38.

3. Tong, C. and Warhaft, Z. 1994 On passive scalar derivative statistics
in grid turbulence.

*Phys. Fluids.* **6**, 2165-2176.

2. Jayesh, Tong, C. and Warhaft, Z. 1994 On Temperature spectra in grid
turbulence.

*Phys. Fluids* **6**, 306-312.

1. Tong, C. and Warhaft, Z. 1994 Turbulence suppression in a jet by means
of a fine ring.

*Phys. Fluids.* **6**, 328-333.

**Graduate Research Assistants**

Mengyuan Yuan, Ph.D. student

Mengjie Ding, Ph.D. student

**Former Graduate Student**

Wei Li, (Ph.D.)

Khuong Ngyuan (Ph.D.)

Shuaishuai Liu (Ph.D.)

Jian Cai (Ph.D.)

Matthew J. Dinger

Xingshi Wang

Qinglin Chen (Ph.D. )

Danhong Wang (Ph.D.)

Hengbin Zhang

Yongchang Ma

Anand Rajagopalan

**Undergraduate Research Assistant**

Michael Wells

Khuong Ngyuan

Matt Dinger

Dale DeCola

Arpan Shah

Daniel Lowe

Robert Lee

David Mathis

Brandon Tompkins